A Televisual Representation of Roman Catholic Priests: Father Ted

Chapter Two

A Peak Inside the Craggy Island Examiner

"We might get to a stage where the fact they are priests has
so little to do with an episode that they could be naked."

Graham Linehan on his characters in Father Ted


A peek inside the Craggy Island Examiner, Craggy Island's newspaper, would reveal much about the surreal world of Father Ted. We'd be treated to the comings and goings of all the various residents of Craggy Island, including its three Roman Catholic priests. Seemingly trapped on this remote island off the west coast of Ireland, these priests ought to lead quiet lives, but they do not.
Each episode of Father Ted involves a disruption of the priests' 'normal' lives in the parochial house. As Craggy Island is a quiet place, visitors come to get away from the relative hustle and bustle of the Irish mainland. From the viewer's perspective, the parochial house is a popular spot for holidays, at least if one is a priest or nun.
Daily Telegraph television critic, Steve Clarke, describes how Craggy Island differs from the setting of other sitcoms about priests:

The setting could not be more removed from the genteel world of cathedral closes and well-tended rural rectories. Craggy Island is a desolate, windswept place somewhere in the middle of the Irish Sea, devoid of late 20th century sophistication. The priests' house, shabby with peeling flock wallpaper and cut-price crucifixes, is stuck in a timewarp. The folk are simple and so are the clergy.1

The surreal title sequence sets up the contrast between the peaceful island and the chaotic parochial house.2 As a helicopter soars over the rugged coastline and the beautiful green fields inland, Craggy Island seems like any other place in Ireland. Then, as the craft nears the parochial house, with the entire cast out front waving, something goes wrong and the helicopter crashes on the front lawn.
Also noteworthy in the title sequence is the lack of a church anywhere near the parochial house. The house sits alone on a large tract of land, with no other building in sight. What is more, the lives of the residents of the parochial house only incidentally have anything to do with religion. Despite the clerical attire of three main characters , and despite numerous Church visitors-priests, nuns and bishops-Father Ted comes across as being only superficially about priests. The programme's actual theme is the struggle of all these people to live together under one roof. According to co-creator Arthur Mathews, the show's principal characters are "trapped somewhere with people they don't necessarily want to be with."
To understand more about Father Ted, I went to the "real" Craggy Island-the office of creators Graham Linehan and Arthur Mathews. Working from their modest headquarters in London's Soho district, Linehan and Mathews create programming they admit to be silly yet hope to have universal appeal. They do this not simply for the money, but because they enjoy doing so. This chapter shall discuss the world of Father Ted from the point of view of its creators. The chapter shall include brief reflections, from the creators and writers, on the characters, on the Roman Catholic Church, on Ireland, and on comedy itself. The chapter concludes with a more lengthy examination of the claims that Father Ted is a surrealistic comedy.

Photo of Father Ted
Dermot Morgan as Fr. Ted

An examination of Father Ted might best begin with a look at how Channel 4-the television channel in Britain that transmits the programme-describes the characters:

Father Ted Crilly
At the heart of this crazy parochial house on Craggy Island is Father Ted Crilly. Father Ted is described by the Channel 4 media guide as "still dreaming of a parish in Las Vegas and a life free from embarrassment. But in the meantime he is also still trying to remain sane on Craggy Island, and to find maybe an hour free from embarrassment."

Father Dougal McGuire
Father Dougal is possibly Father Ted's biggest source of embarrassment. Although we know that Father Dougal has not been out of the seminary long, we are never told how old he is or how long he has been a priest. Channel 4 says: "Young Father Dougal McGuire lives simply. The sun is always shining in his world, and he is oblivious to anything outside it. He is without a doubt one of God's special creatures."

Father Jack Hackett
Father Jack is the eldest member of the clergy on Craggy Island. Channel 4 describes him as "a 'bon viveur'-or a semi-conscious reprobate. When not asleep in his chair he is usually screaming abuse, screaming for a drink or just screaming." Were he more mobile, he would be the primary cause of Father Ted's embarrassment. As it is, he can be relied upon to make Fr. Ted's life uncomfortable whenever important guests, such as bishops, come to visit.

Mrs. Doyle
Channel 4 describes Mrs. Doyle as "the real lynch-pin of the parochial house. Constantly afloat on a sea of tea, the housekeeper from hell keeps an eye on events over an ever-boiling kettle." She is famous for her mountains of "Ferrero Rocher" chocolates and perfectly cut sandwiches. Mrs. Doyle is probably best known-and most embarrassing to Father Ted-in her unflagging capacity for service. She cajoles one and all with "Aw go ahn, go ahn, will ya no just have a wee cup? Go ahn now, go ahn" for hours if her initial offers of tea and a sandwich are refused.

The Birth of A Situation Comedy

Father Ted is produced and distributed by Hat Trick Productions of London.8 Formed in 1986, Hat Trick quickly established a close relationship with Channel 4, developing "distinctive, innovative, quality programming such as Whose Line Is It Anyway? Chelmsford 123, Norbert Smith-A Life, and Clive Anderson Talks Back."9 Hat Trick describes itself as "one of Britain's most successful independent television production companies responsible for award-winning comedy programmes such as Have I Got News For You, Drop the Dead Donkey and Father Ted."10
The moving force behind Father Ted are its creators and writers Linehan and Mathews. Natives of Ireland, the two met while working at Hot Press magazine in Dublin. Their comedy partnership began with a group called "The Joshua Trio," whose sole act consisted of re-enacting key moments from U2's career at inordinate length.11 After moving to Britain, Linehan and Mathews began to collaborate on a pilot, Paris, written for Alexei Sayle, and subsequently made into a series for Channel 4. The Paris script led to the duo's writing for Alexei Sayle's Stuff and The All New Alexei Sayle Show. Their joint writing credits also include The Day Show, Smith and Jones, two series of The Fast Show, and Coogan's Run.
Linehan and Mathews have received considerable praise for their work on Father Ted. They consider Father Ted to be an Irish television programme, though produced in London. They are Irish and the cast is Irish. Even Channel 4's commissioning editor, Seamus Cassidy, is Irish. Linehan and Mathews came to London to produce their programme because, in their view, Irish production companies are lacking in technical competence.
Linehan and Mathews found it easy to write for sketch shows such as Smith & Jones and The Fast Show, but found it difficult to switch to situation comedy. Paris, their first attempt, was cancelled by Channel 4 after the first series. "In a sketch it's really easy to have two characters that spark off each other and are really funny, but in a sitcom it's different. It's really hard. We hadn't been able to crack it until Father Ted," said Linehan.12 "The problem with Paris was that it didn't have a dynamic between the characters. . . . In Paris, each character was doing a monologue interrupted by another person's monologue. Father Ted has that missing dynamic."13
The original character, Father Ted, had been around for some time: Mathews had used him in a stand-up routine to support "The Joshua Trio." Father Ted was partly inspired by Mathews' uncle, who is a priest: "I never really saw him as a figure of fun, but I've always thought the whole way priests interact with each other is brilliant."14
After Paris was cancelled, Linehan and Mathews considered doing a spoof documentary on priests. In its wisdom, however, Hat Trick Productions suggested turning the idea into a sitcom-which would have a longer life. With the approval of Seamus Cassidy at Channel 4 and an order for six episodes, Father Ted was born.

Ted, the Catholic Church, Ireland and Comedy

"The great thing about priests," Linehan observes, "is that when someone comes into a room and they've got a dog collar on, there's no exposition needed: all you need to write about is what's above the collar." This explains why they decided to write a situation comedy about Roman Catholic priests? Mathews agrees, noting that in his experience priests all know one another, and none of them wants to talk about religion.15 Linehan adds:

Say there's one [priest] at a party. He'll be standing there doing everything he can to turn the conversation away from religion, maybe slipping in a few off-colour jokes to show that he's just an ordinary guy. And the other people at the party are also trying not to talk about religion. It all gets terribly false because everyone is desperate not to talk about religion, but nobody can think about anything else.16

Despite claims that the programme is both popular and funny because it is about priests, Linehan and Mathews think the programme is popular simply because it is funny. "Without wanting to sound arrogant, it's very funny," says Linehan. Mathews adds: "Hopefully it's funny, and I think people like the characters and they like the surrealism and the bizarre situations; it's very light-weight; it's very likeable."17 Mathews recognises that Fr. Ted is, at heart, a domestic sitcom: "It's doing what a lot of comedy shows do and it's about things that a lot of shows are about, which is people being confined together and having aspirations beyond what they could ever hope to do. I think that's a classic type of comedy."18 Linehan compares the dynamic of Father Ted to that of Laurel and Hardy: "The idiot who knows everything and the idiot who knows nothing. Ted, Dougal and Jack have a similar dependency on each other."19
The suggestion that there is no sadness in the programme elicits laughter. "Yes there is," Linehan insists, "Ted's situation is awful; he's quite an intelligent man, and he's stuck in the arse-end of nowhere with these two awful people!"
The writers respond defensively to accusations that their characters are stereotypes:

We got accused by some people of stereotyping the Irish and coming up with these old stereotypes. The thing is, when we write the characters, we don't write "an Irish priest comes into the room;" we write "a priest comes into the room." To us they're just characters, they're not Irish. When they speak we don't hear Irish accents; we just hear people.21

Linehan and Mathews prefer to call their creations 'caricatures,' and especially Father Dougal, Father Jack, and Mrs. Doyle. Father Ted they understand to be "normal." By caricatures, the writers mean that they take recognisable characteristics and then exaggerate them for comic effect. "I'm not saying anyone is as stupid as Dougal in the world," Linehan says, "but everyone at times says something really dumb and then when someone explains it they go 'Oh'."22 Linehan continues:

I think caricature is a great word for what they are. We have exaggerated every single aspect of them. If you look at Father Ted, when someone walks into the room they are always a particular character that's just been exaggerated-over-friendly, over-quiet, over-stupid, over-dull. You know what I mean? They're just aspects of different people that we've exaggerated and isolated so that it's their only aspect. That's why you don't see too many people returning time and time again in Father Ted, because they really only got one thing, they've got one job.23

As noted, Father Ted is the single character who his creators do not see as a caricature. He is the stable member of the parochial house, and the one who must hold everything together: "Ted is very much the central character-nothing ever happens to the other three without him being there. . . . In many ways he represents the audience: he's the only one who realises that what's going on around him is completely insane."24
Ted's attempts to keep his sanity frequently drive him to lie or cheat in order to get what he wants, and he routinely gets into trouble for doing so.. This plot device is the inversion of a rule Linehan learned as a child:

If a character is bad, he gets punished at the end; if he's good, he gets rewarded. But even that we kind of mess with, because it's funny sometimes to have an ironic ending where bad behaviour is rewarded and good behaviour is punished. The general rule Arthur and I stick to is that if Ted is in a situation that is slightly embarrassing we get him out of it, but we try and get him out of it by having him lying or cheating, basically digging a massive hole for himself. So, I suppose there is a moral that you should own up to your mistakes as soon as they happen and be careful you don't make them worse.25

Suggested morals notwithstanding, the show's creators see their goal as pure silliness. They are happy so long as the programme makes the audience laugh. "Our main intention is to have as many funny jokes, and one standout scene, per episode. If we write an episode that doesn't have a knock 'em dead scene and a hell of a lot of jokes then we're always worried. That's it, really," says Mathews.26 When asked if an episode needs to have a 'happy ending' to be a good sitcom, Linehan responds: "American shows do that a lot. Where there is a kind of moral at the end, whereas one show we did last year, at the end of it Ted talked to Dougal and said 'Well Dougal, have you learned anything from the show this week?' He said 'No.'"27
For Linehan and Mathews, the show has no message. Neither is there any lesson for the viewing audience to learn. Mathews claims: "There's nothing to say; that's the point. It's unashamedly silly, with nothing valuable to say."
28 What about the audience? Does the audience expect a message? Does the audience find a message in the programme or in its characters? Mathews responds:

I think people like the three of us here would know exactly what it is and that you're not meant to take it seriously. You know, that seems to me the way to take the show-not to take it seriously-but there will always be people who won't take it that way and read too much into it. But what can you do about people like that?29

Linehan admits that he and Mathews do enjoy poking fun at religion in general and at the Roman Catholic Church in particular:

Like Father Dougal will say: "That whole loaves and fishes thing, it's completely mad! You're not supposed to believe it, are you?" Yet if you believe in Catholicism, these three people are the most important people in the world [Craggy Island anyway]. In fact, they are only priests because they can't do anything else.30

The writers believe that all their characters, not just Dougal, express this view. For example, they describe Father Ted as a man who just happens to make his living as a Catholic priest, just as another man might make his living as a banker, a doctor or even a pornographic film director. "Ted doesn't have an anti-religious view of life, but a non-religious view," Linehan explains. "It's a job to him. He doesn't care about religion."31
Even though Linehan does not think people take their poking fun at religion too seriously, he does have concerns: "It certainly won't make the Church look [bad]. It won't make priests look bad. But it might start making people-and this is something I have thought about-think twice about entering the church [becoming priests]. I think that's a possibility." Mathews disagrees: "I don't really think that. I don't think someone would think 'I want to be a priest,' and then see Father Ted and think 'Actually, no I won't. They're a bunch of idiots'."
Mathews cites clerical scandals as having a greater effect on the public's attitude toward the Church in Ireland, including

the Bishop of Galway, and this recent Scottish guy [Bishop Roderick Wright]. And there was Father Michael Cleary, who was a very well known priest in Ireland, who was like a singing priest, always on chat shows, very much the public face of priests in Ireland. But then after he died it transpired that his housekeeper had a kid by him, who was living with him in the parochial house. She had also been raped by a priest and had an abortion; it was a very murky thing. And Father Brendan Smith who was a paedophile priest in Ireland, so the Church in Ireland has all these problems to deal with, [in light of which] Father Ted seems to be [nothing].33

Linehan sums up:

On one hand, I do think we are chipping away slightly at the image of priests; but on the other hand, I do think [the show] humanises priests. And also reminds people that the majority of priests are normal good men. There was a time when you could not pick up a newspaper in Ireland and not see another scandal.34

Given that Linehan and Mathews have become so familiar with their characters that they no longer think of them as priests, their concern over the way in which their programme represents the clergy is surprising: "We've kind of forgotten they're priests in a way, by this stage," Linehan says. Indeed, when they consider the plot of a new episode, they think only about what can happen to these three people, or to Ted, this week: Linehan provides an example:

We have a priest who comes in and all he does is tell Ted the fridge door is not properly on and then he breaks it. Then he asks Ted if he would like to judge a competition. They go out. Ted says something sexist at the competition, and this priest says that might offend the girls; but Ted misunderstands that when the priest gives him the thumbs up. Then he comes back later on with two dresses his mother made and asks "Which one?" I don't think the other priest says one thing about religion. I don't think he mentions God at all.35

Mathews adds "I doubt most of them [the priests] probably would."36
Mathews claims that the audience no longer thinks of Father Ted and his two cohorts as priests either. Linehan leaves the question open: "Well, people have begun to think of Ted and Dougal the way we've begun to think of them, which is just two people who happen to be . . ." "We think of them less as priests," adds Mathews. Linehan continues: "In fact we might get to a stage where the fact they are priests has so little to do with an episode that they could be naked. [And] eventually, they would start wearing normal gear."
Linehan suggests that Irish priests who openly criticise Father Ted might stand to lose favour with their congregations:

They just look bad. It's one of those facts of life: people would be less willing to give up their television than their religion. It's terrible but true. So they're sitting down, saying, "I like this show and it's not against my religion." They don't want to stop going to Mass, so they're gonna start disliking the priest. I just hope priests don't start pretending to like it; if they don't like it I hope they would say so.38

It does not surprise Mathews that priests would find the programme objectionable: "It's quite understandable why they wouldn't like Father Ted. It's not as if we're amazed that priests wouldn't like it. It's quite understandable, especially older priests."39
Although Linehan and Mathews are not practising Catholics, they are not without concern, and even affection, for the Roman Catholic Church. Certainly they want the Church to survive and prosper. They even have their own definite opinions about the proper role of the Church: to educate, and to help in the formation of sound consciences. Commenting on electronic age Linehan argues:

Human beings now have access to images and things, ideas and so on that are really going to test morality and really going to test them and it's gonna be a fight for the Church. To be honest, the Church is going to become, should become more important now in morality instruction. It's extraordinary, when you live in a city [London] that is so without religion.40

Surrealism and Father Ted

From pisstaking U2 to bringing down the Catholic church with subversive surrealism, Father Ted creators Graham Linehan and Arthur Mathews have swapped rock journalism for all-time classic TV comedy.41

New Musical Express

What puts Father Ted a step ahead of both the usual run of dog-collar comedies and the aforementioned Paris is its sense of surreal, silly fun that, so rare in a sitcom, actually makes you laugh.42

Time Out

Father Ted brings both anarchy and a surreal irreverence to a genre of situation comedy that had become moribund.43

Daily Telegraph

As can be seen in the above quotations, reviews of the programme have noted its surrealism. Linehan and Mathews themselves consider their work surreal: "I think [Father Ted] is actually surrealist like surrealism used to mean, surrealism like Dali and Buñuel. His [Buñuel's] treatment of priests is extraordinary," notes Linehan.44
For Linehan, surrealism "is a swan and a pair of shears meeting on an operating table." This is the image he has of Father Ted: "A lot of the humour-it's almost the definition of surrealism-comes from seeing priests doing things that are quite normal [for persons other than priests]. . . . Something like the sport's day in Father Ted is just like that. It's a bunch of priests. . . ." "Dressed as priests," continues Mathews, "running, and trying to shot-put. There is nothing funny in any of the things they do. It's all very straight, but it's funny because they are priests."
What does it mean to call a television programme surreal? Are viewers attracted by the praise of the critics that Father Ted is a surrealistic comedy? Do the surreal claims of the creators provide the programme with an aesthetic legitimacy? If Father Ted is a surrealistic comedy does that mean the viewer should take its representation of priests less seriously? Before answering these questions we must look at surrealism. Let us briefly consider the thought of André Breton, the "founder" of the surrealist movement.
André Breton defined surrealism in 1924 and again in 1929. His "First Manifesto of Surrealism" explored, among other things, the work of Sigmund Freud, and revealed Breton's fascination with dreams and dreaming. Breton wanted to be able to create in a kind of waking dream state-a non-rational flow of pure expression. As he put it:

I baptised the new mode of pure expression which we had at our disposal and which we wished to pass on to our friends, by the name of SURREALISM. . . . I am defining it once and for all:
SURREALISM, n. Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express-verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner-the actual functioning of thought. Dictated by thought, in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern.

Breton later spoke of a short circuit between "a given idea and a respondent idea." This short circuit he saw as a "total possession of our mind" that prevents rational action, and in turn helps the artist to create, and appreciate, pure expression:

In poetry and painting, Surrealism has done everything it can and more to increase these short circuits. It believes, and it will never believe in anything more wholeheartedly, in reproducing artificially this ideal moment when man [sic], in the grip of a particular emotion, is suddenly seized by this something 'stronger than himself' which projects him, in self-defence, into immortality. If he were lucid, awake, he would be terrified as he wriggled out of this tight situation.47

Maurice Nadeau refers to this short circuit as a kind of coincidence:

For one of the few values that remained at the centre of surrealist thinking was 'objective chance,' or more loosely, coincidence. Poets have always lingered over accidents, chance occurrences, whims, and hunches, moments that appear to break the pattern of events. Their anomalous randomness deprives them of meaning, yet their singularity fills them with heightened significance and even ominousness.48

These short circuits became the focus of the surrealists' attention: "Driven by extreme inquisitiveness and self-imposed daring, they dropped everything else and affirmed these moments as the only true reality, as expressive of both the randomness and the hidden order that surrounds us."49 Thus the surrealist seeks to inhabit a dream world, just beyond the margins of rationality. Back in the realm of situation comedy, we may find support in Nadeau: "The current accepted usage of 'surrealist' to designate something crazy, dreamlike, and funny strikes surprisingly close to the truth."50
The tension between Surrealism and religion, more precisely Christianity, has been around since Surrealism's beginning. This tension is found in the work of Luis Buñuel. An atheist, Buñuel rejected Christianity.
In his most famous film, Un Chien Andalou-which led to his being accepted as a surrealist-Buñuel makes use of religious imagery, most notably in a scene in which a pair of priests pull donkeys and pianos across the room. Buñuel's later films employ religious imagery as well. Nazarin, for example, tells the story of "a priest who humbly sets out to follow the teachings of Christ to the letter."
51 The film was accepted by the Catholic Church, and indeed nearly won the International Catholic Cinema Office Prize. Buñuel, however, was not impressed. He saw the priest's imitation of Christ as useless-"a vain and fruitless ambition,"52 and did not believe one could live as an absolute Christian in this world:

I'm speaking of the world, of this earth where we are now. If the Christ were to return they would crucify him over again. One can be relatively Christian, but the absolutely pure, innocent person is condemned to failure. He is beaten before he starts. I'm sure that if the Christ came back, the high priests, the Church, would condemn him.53

Buñuel could neither accept nor understand human weakness, and had no patience for the notion that salvation came by means of the weak, crucified Christ. In this Buñuel is a typical Surrealist. As the film theorist J.H. Matthew's notes:

The fundamental difference between Surrealism and Christianity is that the latter asks us to believe salvation to be a prerogative of an agency outside man [sic], whereas the Surrealists have always remained persuaded that it is man's own concern, his responsibility, to be won by his efforts.54

Buñuel's Viridiana was supposed to be a film about a saint, a young woman who was a contemporary of St. Francis of Assisi. However, Buñuel was more interested in filming the images that came to his mind as he thought of his subject's story-in other words, in pure expression-than he was in making a film about her life. The resulting cries of blasphemy had no effect on him. . For Buñuel, more concerned with the process of creation than with the end result, the actual identities of his characters did not matter: "I'm fond of the character in Nazarin. He's a priest. So what? He could just as well be a hairdresser, or a waiter."55

This creation of a dream world, a world of short circuits, where characters are of little import and where rationality has little place, is reflected in the work of Linehan and Mathews as well. As did Buñuel, they assert that it does not matter that their characters are priests. They could just as easily be police officers, doctors and nurses or soldiers: "In fact, we might get to a stage where the fact they are priests has so little to do with an episode that they could be naked."56 It is impossible to know what Breton nor Buñuel might think of Father Ted. However, according to contemporary standards, such as those mentioned by Nadeau, we may feel justified in calling the show a surrealistic comedy. For more on the significance of this claim, we move to Chapter Three.

Notes for Chapter Two

1. Steve Clarke, "Father Ted Brings Blessed Relief," Daily Telegraph, 2 March 1996, p. 3.
2. This could easily be seen as a fundamental 'binary opposition' as explained by Ferdinand de Saussure -- Course in General Linguistics, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
3. Ben Thompson, "In the Name ofthe Father," The Independent on Sunday. 23 April 195.
4. From the Channel 4 press release for the second series of Father Ted..
5. From the Channel 4 press release for the second series of Father Ted.
6. From the Channel 4 press release for the second series of Father Ted.
7. From the Channel 4 press release for the second series of Father Ted.
8. For more on Hat Trick Productions and the Father Ted production team see Appendix Three.
9. Taken from a Hat Trick Productions press release.
10. Taken from a Hat Trick Productions press release.
11. Thompson, The Independent on Sunday.
12. Comedy Review Issue 1, March 1996, p. 61.
13. Linehan quoted by Steve Clarke, Daily Telegraph.
14. Stephen Dalton, "Give 'em Enough Pope," New Musical Express, 9 March 1996, p. 26.
15. Thompson, The Independent on Sunday.
16. Ben Caudell, "Mass Hysteria," Time Out, 19 April 1995, p. 153.
17. Author's interview.
18. Author's interview.
19. Dalton, "Give 'em Enough Pope."
20. Thompson, The Independent on Sunday.
21. Author's interview.
22. Author's interview.
23. Author's interview.
24. Dalton, "Give 'em Enough Pope."
25. Author's interview.
26. Author's interview.
27. Author's interview.
28. Author's interview.
29. Author's interview.
30. Bruce Dessau, "Roaming Catholics," Time Out, 28 February 1996, p. 26..
31. Clarke, "Father Ted Brings Blessed Relief.".
32. Author's interview.
33. Author's interview.
34. Author's interview.
35. Author's interview.
36. Author's interview.
37. Author's interview.
38. Author's interview.
39. Author's interview.
40. Author's interview.
41. Dalton, "Give 'em Enough Pope.".
42. Caudell, "Mass Hysteria.".
43. Clarke, "Father Ted Brings Blessed Relief."
44. Author's interview.
45. Author's interview.
46. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood, eds., Art in Theory, 1900-1990. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992, p. 438.
47. Harrison and Wood, p. 449.
48. Maurice Nadeau, The History of Surrealism, trans. by Richard Howard. London: Jonathan Cape, 1968, p. 20.
49. Nadeau, p. 21.
50. Nadeau, p. 12..
51. J.H. Matthews, Surrealism and Film. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1971, p. 153.
52. Matthews, Surrealsim and Film, p. 153.
53. Matthews, Surrealsim and Film, p. 154.
54. Matthews, An Introduction to Surrealism, p. 44.
55. Matthews, Surrealism and Film, p. 154.
56. Author's interview.

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Changes last made on: Tue May 15, 2005